In a lengthy article captioned 'From Donglang to Galwan River Valley: Beware of Three Changes in the Sino-Indian Border Issue' in the official Shanghai 'The Paper' on August 29, Dr. Tongyu Tao of the School of International Studies at Peking University said that there would be frequent clashes on the border between India and China because the balance of power between the two in the border area has changed. He said India has also undertaken construction of roads and camps. Observing that there had been two serious confrontations in three years, Tongyu Tao said 'China must pay sufficient attention to possible changes in the Sino-Indian border issue. The border confrontation between the Donglang region and the East Ladakh region essentially reflects the three changes that the Sino-Indian border issue is undergoing. These changes have a significant impact on the "status" of the Sino-Indian border issue and the development of Sino-Indian relations. He cautioned that the actual balance of power between China and India in the border area may change'. He accused India of trying to change the "status quo" in recent years as the Indian government 'has been hoping to change the balance of power in disputed areas'.  He said "The recent confrontation in East Ladakh was caused by India’s infrastructure construction in the actual control zone. In the Galwan area, the dispute was the construction of the Daulat Beg Oldi (DBO) road in India. Some studies on satellite imagery in the border area show that India has set up some military bases along the highway and, "therefore, China should firmly oppose this". He said "In the past few decades, India has built a large number of facilities on the Sikkim section of the Sino-Indian border, deployed a large number of troops, and even built military installations such as bunkers in some places, constantly changing the border areas status quo". He said an important reason for this infrastructure construction in the border areas is that the BJP government led by Modi came to power.  He anticipated that "the reality that needs to be faced is that India’s material capabilities on the side of the actual control line have been significantly improved. In the future, as the comprehensive national strength of China and India increases, infrastructure construction activities in border areas will inevitably increase". He added "the two sides have huge differences on the actual line of control. Delineating the actual line of control is not easier than delimiting the formal boundary line. Therefore, there is no solution to the actual line of control for the time being". Tongyu Tao also said "In recent years, some trends in India also deserve sufficient attention from China. First of all, when India is dealing with disputes with Pakistan, its methods have become increasingly radical and extreme. India is willing to take the risk of a full-scale war with a nuclear country and implement a cross-border military strike against Pakistan. China needs to be vigilant of this Indian behavior pattern, effectively deter Indian military adventurous actions in the border area, and resolutely counterattack any form of force temptation. Second, in recent years, due to constant frictions in Sino-US relations, the anti-China tendency in the US foreign strategy has become more and more obvious. At the same time, the cooperation between India and the United States on strategic issues such as defense, security, and economy is constantly deepening. However, India's diplomatic strategy has a certain degree of independence, and it cannot be judged that India has completely fallen to an alliance that
"contains" China. However, after the Galwan incident, whether it will make India more strategically inclined to the United States deserves close attention."

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